The culture we received through enlightened saints (baidhikrishimunis) are ornamentalfor human life. Cultural practices (sanskaras) purify our body, thought, intellect, and heart by removing all negativity embedded inside them. Through practice of baidhik procedure based sanctification culture, our lives start glowing with divinity in a same way as any pictures glows after being painted with various colours. Practice of these Sanskarasgive us good fame (sukriti) in this life and take us to betterment (sadgati) after we die. Human beings possess two kinds of nature, one is divine and another is devilish. Behaviorsthat are based on divinity promotes social well-being whereas behaviors based on devilish nature are harmful and fatal to society. Our baidikscriptures mention about it.
Now let’s see the opinions shared by various scholars regarding sixteen cultural practices (sanskaras). Some scholars claim there are 48 sanskaras, for others there are 40sanskaras, other scholars point 25 sanskaras, to some there are16 sanskaras, and to some, there are 13 sanskaras. In practice,only ten sanskaras are seen. These sanskarasare:
Attempt has been made hereafter to briefly introduce these 16 fundamental sanskaras.
After completion of the ceremony of marriage, scriptures have put special importance on pregnancy to give perfection.The whole creation is founded on motherhood power. According to the story of Sushrut, after the completion of 25 years of bramhacharya ashram, it is said thatthere must be at least 9 years of differences between male and female in Sanskrit saying - panchapawamsetatobarshaipumannaritusodase|Samtwagatawapreu tau janiyatkushalobhisak|| According to Manu, in order to give birth to son and daughter, pregnancy has to be made on even day like 14, 16 etc. and on odd date like 15, 17 etc. respectively, by leaving aushi, purnima, asthami, chaturdashi, parwadin,shrada, and devkarya except on 11th and 13th night of the seasonal pregnancy time of women. Necessity of ritual to worship god prior to conception has also been mentioned.
Tat pungsavansaukalewirhas been said in the publication of wirmitrodayasanskar. Garbo labyata yen karmananishiktibiryammogbhawati tat garbhalambhanampumanlabdhojayate yen tatupungsawanam |It means when the symptoms of pregnancy is seen or felt inside own womb by a female after 3 or 4 month of being conceived,this sanskara (ritual) is to be made. According to the rule of byakaran the word pumas is formed whenunadimadumsumprataya is used from the dhatu pa (rakshyane) punj(pawane)and while compiling pungsawanis formed. It means the life(man or woman) inside the womb be the healthy one who do have divine power to follow and protect.By worshiping Brahma, Bishnu, Maheshworand other panchaparmeshwor,tadanu war gurjo, by grinding the green kushand inhaling fresh water juice of this grind through theright nostril after filtering it or should pour 2,4 drop, should eat delicious healthy food.The mantra of veed – “Om biwashwannadityeisate; Om hiranyagarbha……. Om Adhvyayata:sambhrita…..||” needs to be chanted at this situation. It is good to enchant the mantra “Om Suparno Si”by putting the fetal child on the lap of wife and by touching the uterus.
This ritual is done on 4th,6th,8th month of pregnancy. For the satisfaction of pregnant women and for praying for the healthy life of unborn child, the management of this ritual is made. For the satisfaction of wife, husband touches the head of wife and gives her a hair massage. Elite old women get gathered and give blessingsto the pregnant woman on such occasion. During such ritual, according tobaidikprocedure, there is a practice of eatingkheer after givingaahuti to fire. It is also said “Aswalayanguyasutramachatarthegarbhamasesimantonayanam |”Nowadays, such practices are not followed, but still such practices are taken as important to be prevented from unwanted and negative power.
This ritual should be done after the child bornsand before it is separated from the placenta.By the agnisthapanaprocedure, after worshipping of fire by father, he should read out the mantra as “om ajatidasmasyagurbhojaryatmashaaha…|”in front of pregnant women who is in pain during labor time. After reading this whole mantra,it is to be prayed that may the prashutibayubring the child outside from mother’s womb.As mentioned in page 180 of ParaskarGuhesutra, "jatasyakumarya achhinyanadyameghajananaayushekaroti|" means, this ritual is performed with desire to make the child mentally developed and with willingness to have the child’s age of more than 100 years.The fivepranas – prana,apana,udana, samana,andbyaana, needs to be worshipped at the surrounding areas on east, west, north, and south as well as at centre of the mandap, after worshipping of five brahmins.
If this is impossible,the father himself should worship by imagining those respective pranas.By worshipping goddess earth, the child is blessed with100 years of age (paryam shard),bymaking/writingomkarasymbol into the tongue of child with mixture of ghee and honeyand making the child to taste it. At that time, father should bless the child with ashwabhara,parasubhawa,hiranyashutbhawawishing the child to become as “strong as stone,be destroyer to enemy as an axe,be pure like gold burning in fire.The whole ritual ofjaatkarmaritual gets completedif finally, donation of a grey colouredcow and money is made toa priest.After completion of this ritual, father has to bath in accordance with nirnayasindhu.No impurity is deemed on the occasion of birthday.
According to Manu, the ritual of naming child is to be done on 11th, 12th day of child birth, after crossing of 10th night of birth.
In some granthas, it says dasamyamuthaye pita namakarankaroti |This means, namakaran should be done on 10th day early morning. Name is an identity of person.
And to explain this, it says – rattrayamatitayamprasutikagrehatutthayetrinbramhanaanbhojayitwakumarsyodwarathapitaanaamkarankaroti|Boy child’s name should be of two or four letters and girl child’s name should be of three,five and seven letters, says sastra. According to Yagyaballaqya’sconsent it is said ahanyakadashe name,which means in our rituals after 10th night of child birth naming ceremony should be done with agnisthapana, devdevipujan,hawan and child’s birth year,month,tithi,nakxetra,pau and rashi name should be written in peepal and banana leafs and should be said on child’s ear along with sankhaand bell sound.
On 4th month of child’s birth,child should be brought outside of house on mother’s lap for suryadarshan with father saying Om tachaxurdebahintapurastata |Then priest should be giving their blessings with Towa jibasharada:shatam.Nowadays, homadisaren’t possible near naming ceremony days so suryadarshanisis being done on the same day of naming ceremony, in front of agnidevata.